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When scientists think of a very early Earth, they think of a hot, hostile place not too long after the birth of the solar system more than 4 billion years ago. This time in the Earth’s history is called the Hadean Eon, named after the ancient Greek God of the Underworld Hades, and would have been just about when the…

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We’ve all heard that rising global temperatures are bad for the environment. Typically, this is framed in terms of rising sea levels and melting Arctic and Antarctic ice and a host of other ecosystem level changes. Sometimes though, the ways these changes affect organisms are more difficult to understand. For years,…

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Since the invention of the microscope and discovery of microbes, their role in everyday life has been, to say the least, contentious. As many of us have learned at one time or another, microbes can be a source of nasty diseases. At the same time, they are inevitably a part of us and our world. With the advent of…